Year round strength training for cyclists


How Important is Aerobic Energy in Cycling – Part 1


How Important is Aerobic Energy in Cycling – Part 2


Workouts and Drill to Prepare Yourself for Cyclocross Season


Age and Performance


Performance Testing


Gearing Down: Using Early Season Force to Build Cycling Endurance


Year-Round Strength Training for Cyclists


A yearly strength and conditioning program for a cyclist is an essential aspect of training for every level of rider from beginner to elite. Strength training not only helps improve overall aerobic strength and endurance, it also prevents injury and promotes recovery. Strength training is also important throughout the race season as long as there is a proper balance between strength training off the bike, training on the bike, racing, and recovery. In this article we will take a look at a yearly strength and conditioning program to benefit the overall strength and endurance of a cyclist.

One of the main goals with sport-specific strength training is to target your prime movers as well as the assistance muscles that support your prime movers. With proper strength training, each time you press on the pedal, your primary group of muscles (those that take on the majority of the load) will be stronger and have a stronger group of assisting muscles to help produce power. Since you are only as strong as your weakest link, the stronger system you build as a whole, the more potential you have for cycling specific gains.


Another major goal with strength training for cyclists is to train more muscle aerobically. This includes the muscles in your legs and the muscles in your arms and core. The more aerobically trained muscle you have, the more potential you have to clear lactic acid, and the less overall body fatigue you will experience. A weaker core and upper body that fatigues fast will result in poor form and cause you to slow no matter how strong and aerobically trained your legs are.


A cycling strength training program can be broken down into the following periods throughout a year - anatomical adaptation, max strength, muscle endurance, and a maintenance period.


Anatomical Adaptation (AA)


6-8 weeks in duration

2-3 times a week

20-30 reps per set using 40-60% of your 1 rep max (1RM) for each exercise

3-5 sets with 1-2 minutes rest between sets

Primary Exercises: Squats, Deadlifts, Lunges, Body weight exercises such as planks, pushups, and core

The anatomical adaptation phase should take place 1-2 months prior to the start of your off-season base training on the bike. The goal of this phase is to prepare the muscles for more loads and repetitions in the upcoming phases. This strength phase should come after you have transitioned from your season and usually after a break from formal training and racing.


Max Strength Phase (MS)


3-6 weeks in duration

1-2 times a week

4-6 reps per set using 80-90% of your 1 rep max (1RM) for each exercise

3-5 sets with 3-5 minutes rest between sets


Primary exercises: Olympic lifts - Squats, Deadlifts, Squat Press (not pictured)


Incorporating a max strength phase for a cyclist has a few key benefits. Lifting maximal loads requires greater force which results in a greater recruitment of muscle fibers. This activates and trains more muscle, creating a stronger support system for your prime movers. Incorporating a maximal strength phase has also shown to improve cycling economy without sacrificing a decrease in VO2 1. An improvement in cycling economy means it will take you less energy to complete any given duration.


It is important to remember to ease into the max strength phase, lifting with lighter loads closer to the 80% of 1RM for the first few weeks before challenging yourself with heavier loads closer to the 90% 1RM range later in the stage. It is also important to use good form, and a spotter, with each exercise during this phase to help prevent injury.  The MS phase should be incorporated within the first few weeks of your base building period and prior to working the muscle endurance phase.


Muscle Endurance (ME) Phase


6-8 weeks in duration

Frequency of 1-2 times a week

20-30 reps per set using 30-50% of your 1 rep max (1RM) for each exercise

2-4 sets with 60-90 seconds rest between sets


Primary Exercises: Squats, Lunges, Body weight exercises such as planks, pushups, and core


The muscle endurance phase is the most important strength phase for all cyclists. This phase stresses aerobic metabolism. So for a cyclist that needs to pedal at 90-100 revolutions per minute (rpm) over many hours in competition, the muscle endurance phase needs to focus on many repetitions per set with less recovery between sets. This phase will begin towards the end of the base period and can be carried into your early season races,  before you transition to a maintenance phase for the year.


Strength Maintenance (SM) Phase


Duration is throughout race season

Frequency of 1x a week excluding all race weeks and also the week prior to an A priority race 

10-15 reps per set using 30-60% of your 1 rep max (1RM) for each exercise

2-3 sets with 1-2 minutes rest between sets


Primary Exercises: Squats, Lunges, Body weight exercises such as planks, pushups, and core


The strength maintenance phase is a time to focus on maintaining core and upper body strength while properly training the legs on the bike. The most specific strength gains you can make are on the bike, so it is important to be conservative with lower body strength training at this time so as not to overtrain the legs in any way or take away from your training on the bike. This is also a great time of year to make use of body weight exercises such as planks, trunk twists, and abdominal exercises. That will allow you to reduce the load on the lower body while maintaining good upper body and core strength.


While this article is by no means a comprehensive strength training program for a cyclist, I hope it’s been a good primer on what a cyclist should generally be doing in terms of strength training throughout their season. Think of strength training in terms of a year long cycle just like the rest of your training, and you will definitely see yourself make gains on the bike.


Mike Schultz brings more than 10 years of racing and training experience from national endurance and ultra endurance events, mountain bike stage races, and 24 hour solo cycling events. He is certified with the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) as a Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS), Personal Trainer and as a USA Cycling Certified Coach. Learn more about Mike at


The importance of aerobic and anaerobic energy in the sport of cycling


When cycling, especially while racing, we use a mix of aerobic and anaerobic energy to create speed for the day. While sprinting hard to close a gap in a road race or powering up a steep climb on a dirt trail, you’re tapping into both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism to complete the task, but most of the time you’re working aerobically. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how aerobic and anaerobic the sport of cycling really is, and why it is important for all cycling disciplines to focus on training aerobically the majority of the time.


To begin figuring out how aerobic or anaerobic cycling really is, we first need to learn what all this aerobic and anaerobic stuff means. Aerobic metabolism takes place with the presence of oxygen and anaerobic metabolism happens without the presence of oxygen. So that means sometimes we move, jump or pedal at a certain intensity that requires very little or zero use of oxygen. But the question remains to when and how often this happens while we are riding or racing our bikes?

Let’s first learn about physiological energy systems, and begin to look at what is happening on the inside of our bodies while we are training at certain intensities. The chart below is an example of the type of energy system that is targeted at specific intensities1. Peak power charts from a range of abilities, from category I elite to category 4 cyclists were used to help determine appropriate exercise durations related to percent of max power.

Energy Systems.JPG

It is important to note that all energy systems will play a role in most if not all movements at any intensity, but the main focus is on the system that plays the biggest role. As you can see, a true anaerobic action takes place at around 90-100% of your maximum power output, typically lasting between 3-10 seconds. A mix of aerobic and anaerobic energy is used between 30-90% of maximum power and while working under 35% of maximum power output, you are working mainly aerobic.



The finial 3-5 seconds of a sprint to the finish line, where a rider puts as much power into the pedals as possible, is a good example of a cycling effort that is mainly anaerobic. On stage six of the 2012 Tour De France, Greg Henderson led his teammate Andre Greipel to the finish line, sprinting as his lead out man to give Greipel the best chance for the win. Henderson did a great job that day and Greipel ended up winning the stage. In the last 60 seconds of that race, Henderson produced a max output of 1150 watts (2 Second peak output was 1124 watts so the max of 1150 watts was most likely for 1 second) and averaged 663 watts2. During that short period of time, especially when he was hammering over the 1000 watt range, Henderson was working mainly anaerobically.

What is interesting is to analyze the ten minutes proceeding the final minute of the race, where Henderson was working near his threshold power ranges, averaging close to 400 watts, to help keep his team near the front of the pack2. When you compare Henderson’s threshold power to his max power output for the day, you can see that even when working hard near his threshold range, he is still only working at 35% of his maximum power ranges. So even though he was working at his threshold power range for a ten minute effort, he was still using a large amount of aerobic energy to complete that task.

In part two of this article, we are going to analyze the aerobic and anaerobic demands of four different disciplines of cycling. We will use two race files from Greg Henderson and two race files from Jeremiah Bishop to give us a look at both road and off road cycling races.


1 – Cramer, Joel. “Bioenergetics of Exercise and Training.” NSCA (2006): PDF file.

2 - Gallagher, Stephen. “Greg Henderson's Tour de France Power Data." Cyclingnews., Web. 14 July 2012.


The importance of aerobic and anaerobic energy in the sport of cycling - Part 2


Analyzing a cycling race to determine how often you are working both aerobically and anaerobically can be done with the use of power, the Training Peaks Power by Zones chart and some knowledge of physiological energy systems from the first article. The Power by Zones chart provides the percent of time pedaling in all power ranges during a training ride or race.

The seven power zones used to analyze each race file are from Andrew Coggan’s Power Training Levels. All levels are a percentage of Lactate Threshold (LT) power. The main source of energy for each training zone has been established using a percent of each rider’s maximal power outputs, compared to the primary energy system stressed on the “Training Specific Energy Systems” chart from the first article.

              Power Zone                                      Primary Source of Energy

1            Active Recovery         <55%                           Aerobic

2            Endurance                  56-75%                       Aerobic

3            Tempo                         76-90%                       Mainly Aerobic

4            Lactate Threshold     91-105%                     Aerobic/Anaerobic

5            VO2 Max                     106-120%                   Aerobic/Anaerobic

6            Anaerobic Capacity   121-225%                   Mainly Anaerobic            

7            Neuromuscular          >226%                        Anaerobic


For this article, and slightly different than how Dr. Coggan calculates each training zone, I placed a numerical value for Zone seven to further define anaerobic efforts within a race. Zone seven is set to display power outputs greater than 226% of threshold power - equivalent to approximately 75-100% of each rider’s maximum power output range and mainly anaerobic (refer to article one for explanation).


Let’s analyze and compare two disciplines of road racing and two disciplines of mountain bike racing to show how much aerobic and anaerobic metabolism plays a role in each race.

Greg Henderson’s 2012 Tour de France Stage 4: Abbeville - Rouen 214.5km – Duration 5.5 hours

Henderson 1.jpg

Greg Henderson’s 2011 Amgen Tour of California Stage 6: 24km Time Trial – Duration 33 minutes

Henderson 2.jpg

As you can see - 93% of the 214.5km stage race and 83% of the time trial race took place between zones 1-4, showing that both race efforts relied heavily on aerobic metabolism. This is not to say that anaerobic metabolism does not play a role, it definitely does. 38% of the TT effort is spent between zones 4-6, compared to 12% for the 214.5km stage, showing that the TT effort relies on more anaerobic energy than a long distance road race but the majority of the race is still mainly aerobic.


It is important to note that Greg spent 29 seconds in zone 7 during the 214.5km stage race, within the final minute of the race sprinting to the finish line. That represents .001% of the race so it is not displayed but it was a very important part of the race, if not the most important. He also spent zero percent of time in zone seven during the TT effort.


Jeremiah Bishops 2012 Cohutta 100 mile mountain bike race – Duration 7 hours

Bishop 1.jpg

Jeremiah Bishops 2011 Fontana City National - Pro XC – Duration 2 hours

Bishop 2.jpg

When looking at both mountain bike races from Jeremiah Bishop - 92% of the 100 mile Cohutta race and 76% of the Pro XC race was spent between zones 1-4, showing that both of these race efforts relied heavily on aerobic metabolism, similar to both road race examples. You can see that for the 100 mile mountain bike race, 58% of it was spent between zones 2-4 making this race effort the most aerobic effort of all the races. But on the flip side, 23% of the Pro XC race was spent in zones 5-6 making this race the most reliant on anaerobic energy of all the race disciplines.

It is also important to note that Jeremiah spent four seconds at the Cohutta race and seven seconds at Fontana race in zone seven.

In conclusion, it is important to realize the large role aerobic metabolism plays in most if not all cycling disciplines. At the same time, it is also important to realize how much of certain intensity is needed to do well for each specific type of race. To do well in a XC mountain bike race, a well-timed focus to improve VO2 max and anaerobic capacity efforts needs to take place and if it is a road time trial race, a large focus needs to be placed on gaining endurance and power in zones 3 and 4. But underlying even the hardest efforts on the bike is the role of aerobic energy. It is not always about how hard you can go, but how often you can go hard – That takes aerobic endurance.

Mike Schultz CSCS